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Development of Reading and Writing in Students

Development of reading and writing in students - It's a new perspective on how children know literacy, which is how they learn to read and write known by emergent literacy. The educator of New Zeland, Marie Clay, referred to it by the term coining. Now, researchers see learning literacy from a child's point of view.

Development of Reading and Writing in Students
Library Journal

The age range of 12-14 years listening to stories read aloud, telling and planting their environment, and experimenting with pencils.

The concept of literacy has expanded into the cultural and social aspects of language learning and through the children's experience and understanding of writing languages both reading and writing including part of the introduction of literacy (reading and writing).

Reading and Writing for Students

Teale and Sulzby (1989) Describe the portrayal of children as literacy learners with the following characteristics:
  1. The child begins to learn to read and write from the beginning of their lives.
  2. Children learn read-write functions through observations and real-life participation where reading and writing are used.
  3. Child reading and writing ability develops together and interconnected through the reading and writing experience.
  4. Children learn through active involvement with read-write material, by establishing their reading and writing comprehension.


Teale and Sulzby describe children as active learners who build their own knowledge of reading and writing with mentoring from parents and other educators. Educators help by demonstrating reading and writing, providing read-write materials, by building opportunities for children to engage in reading and writing activities.

The way children learn about writing languages is very similar to the way they learn to speak. Children were immersed in written language because they first knew the spoken language. They have many opportunities to see reading and writing happening for real purposes and experimenting with writing languages. Through this experience, children build their knowledge of read-write.

Concepts About Writing Language

The introduction of children with written language began before they entered school. Parents and other caregivers have read for children and children observing adults reading. They learn to have signs and to print other environments in society.

The child experimented with writing and having parents writing for them. They also observe adults in writing. When the children came into KINDERGARTEN their knowledge of writing languages was expanded rapidly when they were involved in meaningful, functioning and original experiences in reading and writing.

Students also grew in their ability to stand back and ponder the language. The ability to speak about the concept of language is called Metalinguistic (Yaden & Templeton, 1986), and the ability of the child to think Metalinguistic is developed by the experience of reading and writing them (Templeton & Spivey, 1980)

1. Concept of language function
Through their experience at home and society, children learn various meanings and that reading and writing are used for a wide range of functions and purposes.

They read the menu at the restaurant to find out what food is provided, write and receive letters to communicate with Temandan, read (and listen) stories for pleasure. Children also learn language functions when they observe parents and teachers using writing language for all of these purposes.

Child understanding of the reading and writing functions reflects how the writing language is used in their communities. While reading and writing are part of everyday life in almost every family, the family uses writing language different destinations in different societies (Heath, 1983).

It is important to make it clear that children have a wide variety of read-write experiences in both middle-class families and working-class families, though they may differ (Taylor,1983; Taylor & Dorsey-Gaines, 1987).

In some societies, the writing language is used primarily as a tool for practical purposes, such as paying bills, and in some societies reading and writing are also used for activities at leisure.

In other societies, the writing language serves broader functions, such as debate social and political issues.

Guru demonstrates the writing language function and gives students the opportunity to experiment with reading and writing in the following ways:
  • Show signs in the classroom.
  • Create a list of class rules.
  • Using read-write materials in drama game centers.
  • Write student records in class.
  • Exchanging messages with classmates.
  • Read and write stories.
  • Make posters about favorite books.
  • Labeling of the class parts.
  • Draw and write in the journal.
  • Write a morning message.
  • Record questions and information in the chart.
  • Write notes for parents.
  • Read and write letters to pen companions.
  • Read and write charts and maps.

2. The concept of writing print letters
Through their initial experience with reading and writing, children learn that speaking can be written and read; They also learned how text is arranged in books, letters, graphs, and other reading materials. They gained three types of concepts about writing the print letters:

a. Book-oriented concept
Students learn how to hold books and open pages, and they learn to text, not illustrations, carry messages.

b. Direct concept
Students learned that writing printed letters are written and read from left to right and top to bottom in each page, and they match the sound to be written into the writing letter, placing letters by letter into the text, when the letters are read aloud. Students also observe punctuation marks and learning the name of the punctuation and the purpose of the trigger.

c. Concepts of letters and words
Students learn to identify names of letters and uppercase and lowercase letters. They also learned that the word was composed of letters; That the sentence is composed of a word, the capital letters are highlighted between the first word in a sentence; And that the distance marks the word and between sentences (Clay, 1972, 1979).

3. Concept of words
Children's understanding of the concept of ' word ' is an important part of being able to read/literacy. Children only have vague ideas about the form of language, such as words, letters, sounds, sentences, that the teacher uses the performance talk about reading and writing (Downing, 1970, 1971-1972).

Researchers found that children move through some level of awareness and understanding of this terminology over at the base level (Downing & Oliver, 1973-1974).

Pre-school children equate words and words representing objects. When they were introduced to read and write experiences, the child began to distinguish between objects and words, and finally, they came to appreciate that the word had its own meaning. Templeton (1980) describes the development with these two examples:

When asked if ' dog ' is a word, 4-year-old children demonstrate their thinking by jumping on the floor, starting to undermine the fierce, and being placed at home, breathless. Compared with the same question, the 8-year-old boy gave a response that the true ' dog ' is a word, and continues to explain how the spelling represents the spoken sound and how the word ' stand ' for certain types of animals (p. 454)

Some researchers investigate a child understanding of the word as a language unit. Papandropoulou and Sinclair (1974) identifies the four stages of understanding the word. At the first level children do not distinguish words and objects. At a later level, the children describe the word as a label for objects.

They consider the words that stand for objects as words, but do not articulate the articles and prepositions as words because the words ' like ' and ' with ' cannot be represented with the object. In the third-level children understand that the word contains meaning and the story is composed of words.

At the fourth level more smoothly as readers and authors describe the words as independent elements that have their own meaning with of course semantic and synthetic related. 

In reading, children move from recognizing the environment to reading contextual words in the book. Children start reading by recognizing the fast food restaurant logo, self-service, grocery stores, and commonly used household items (Harste, Woodward & Burke, 1984).

Gradually, children develop relationships that relate shapes and meanings when they learn the concept of written language.

When the child begins to write, they use a stroke or single letter to pour a complex idea (Clay, 1975; Schickedanz, 1990). As they learn about the names of the letters and the correspondence of the phonemes, they use one word or two or three to set up the word.

At first they wrote together, but slowly they learned the word segment and left the spacing between words. They sometimes add dots or lines as an inter-word opened, or they draw circles around the letters.

They also start random capital letters to use capital letters at the beginning of sentences and to kick nouns and adjectives. 

4. Alphabet Concept
The fourth concept developed for children is about the alphabet and how it is used to represent the phonemes. Children use phonetic knowledge (related to sound) to read the password of foreign words as they read and make spelling words as they write. It is too often assumed that phonics instruction is the most important component of the reading program for children, but it is phonics only one of the four language systems.

a. Alphabetic principles
The alphabetical principle shows one by one correspondence between the phonemes (sound) and the grapheme (letter) so that each letter consistently represents one sound.

b. Letter Name
The most basic information that children learn about alphabets is how to identify and form letters in handwriting. They see a word in a print environment and they often learn to look after ABC songs. Over time, children enter KINDERGARTEN, they can get used to recognizing some of the letters, especially the names of their cities, names of family members and pets, and common words in their homes and communities. Children can also write some familiar letters.

The ability to mention alphabetic letters is the best predictor in starting a reading performance, although knowing the name of the letter does not directly impact the ability to read (Adams, 1990). The possibility of a more explanation for the relationship between knowledge letters and reading is that children who have been actively engaged in reading and writing activities before entering class one know the names of letters, and they are more likely to be quick in reading.

Simply teach the children to name the letters without reading accompanying them and writing the experience does not have this effect.

c. Foam-Grafem Correspondence
Many letter names provide information about the phoneme. For example, when a child says the word B or M, the letter name helps them predict the phoneme/b/and/m/. The letter name is especially useful for identifying consonants and long sounds.

The children concluded the phonemes for many letters and teachers taught correspondence to other phonemes through demonstrations, minilessons, and reading and writing experiences.

Teachers show how to pronounce words when they write a message with children, showing children how to pull out the pronunciation of the word in order to hear some sound. They did a minilessons on the phoneme-related correspondence using words taken from the literature that had been read and heard by children.

Teachers sit with the children as they read and write, giving them their reinforcement when they take out their voices (sounding words). While reading, the children initiate the voice of the word together with the syntax and other semantic information to guess the unknown word. When writing, the children pronounce the word slowly and write the letters that are heard.

d. Onsets and Rimes 
A syllable can be divided into two parts: Onsets and Rimes. Onset is a consonant voice if any, which precedes the vowels, and Rimes is the vocal and every consonant voice that follows him (Treiman, 1995). For example, in ' show ', SH is the onset and OU is the rime, and in the ' Ball ', B is the onset and all is the rime.

For ' at ' and ' up ', there is no onset, the whole word is rime. Studies have shown that children make more mistakes reading code and spelling the final consonants of the initial consonants, and they make more mistakes on the vocals than consonants (Treiman, 1985). The issue of this area is appropriate for Rimes, and educators are now speculating that onsets and Rimes could provide the key to unlocking the phonemic consciousness

The Emergence Of Children's Awareness In Reading

Children move through the three stages as they learn to read during the basic levels: know, start, and eloquent (Cutting, ND). The first stage is to get to know the reading, and the children entering this stage expect to learn to read. Children learn to behave like readers and read books. They read familiar books and examined new books.

Children often memorize stories and use image cues to guide "readings". They realize that text is not a picture, bring a story, and they start pointing out familiar words and look for other words. In other words, as children try to match the story in their heads with words on each text page, they begin to move to the second stage.

The second stage is early reading. Children read orally, but their readings are deliberately slow because they match every word they say to the page. Often they point to each word as they say aloud.

They continue to rely on their memory of the text, and images are still important clues, children are increasingly using phoneology, semantics, syntax and pragmatic cues in the text. They feel successful in their abilities as readers, and they increasingly make self-correction when they read.

The third stage is reading smoothly. Children at this stage have learned how to read. The child usually reads silently, and by automatically reading except when they meet difficult words.

Then they use phoneology, semantic, syntax and pragmatic cues to identify these difficult words so they can keep reading. The student reads extensively and if they enjoy reading, it can develop a lifelong read interest.

1. Assisted reading (Assisted Reading)

Assisted reading is one of the approaches to helping children in introducing reading. In this approach, the child and the teacher (or the fluent reader) sit together to read the book. The teacher reads, the child listens and looks at the illustration in the book. Gradually the child assumes more and more of the readings until the child performs most of the readings and the teacher adds difficult words. 
Three stages in assisted reading (assisted reading) are:

a. Reading for children
The teacher reads the book for the child and they repeat each phrase or sentence. At first, the attention of most children will not be in the line of writing as they repeat the words. They might have a look around the room or the pictures in this book to direct their attention to the writing line, the teacher pointed to the words in each line as read.

This allows the children to see that the printed lines are read from left to right, not randomly. Many different books are read and reread during this stage. The recital is important because the visual images of the words must be viewed and read many times to ensure their introduction in the other books. Then, one of the word repetitions may be enough for the next introduction of the word in context.

b. Reading together
When children begin to observe that some words last repeatedly, from book to book, they enter the second stage of the assisted reading process. In this stage, the teacher reads and the children repeat or echo the words.

However, the teacher does not read the words, the children Tampaknyasudah recognize. The teacher removes the words, and the children fill them. Ungodlessness, or flow, of reading, should not be disturbed.

If fluency is not retained during this stage, the children will not understand the meaning of that part, because the syntax and semantic cues derived from the fluency of the flowing language will not be obvious to them.

c. Reading a friend's cross
One way to use the ' Read assisted ' method in a KINDERGARTEN in the first class is to read a friend's cross. Students from the upper-grade level can be paired with children in the elementary class, and students become good friends in reading older students reading books aloud for younger children, and younger children also read so that children Using ' Read assisted '.

Teachers arrange a reading program with friends, deciding when to read together, how long each session will end, and when the reading schedule is done.

Elementary school teachers explain the program to their students and talk about the activities of reading friends that they will do together.

Top-level teachers teach a series of minilesson about how to work with children, how to use ' Read assisted ', how to choose a book to attract children, and how to help them respond to books.

Then the older students choose books to read aloud and practice reading until they can read the book correctly.

At the first meeting, students in pairs, get acquainted and read together. They also talked about a book that they had read and probably wrote a special Bacaaan list. Reading friends may also go to the library and choose the book that they will read in the next session.

There are significant social benefits in the program of ' reading Inter-cross friends ' as well. Children can get acquainted with other children that they may never meet, and upper-class children learn how to work with elementary-level children.

When they talk about the books they read, they share personal experiences and interpretations. They also talked about reading strategies, how to choose a book, and their favorite author or style of illustration. Sometimes two classes will plan the holidays together, so this activity will strengthen the social relationship between the children.

d. Traveling Bags of Books
Teachers can collect several books on various topics to take home children and read with their parents. Then the child and the parents read one or more of these books and draw or write a response to the book they read in the list of books accompanying the traveling bag. The children carried bags at home for a few days and then brought them back to school so that other children could borrow them. 

2. Reading together (Shared Reading)

Teachers often share stories and other books with children by reading aloud books when children are in individual textbooks or magnified that anyone can see it. This approach is called reading together, and the teacher uses it to share a good book reading pleasure with students when students cannot book the books independently.

Through reading together, teachers also demonstrate how to work with writing, providing opportunities for students to use predictive strategies, enhancing their sense of self-esteem in the ability to read students. Reading together is often used with novice readers who are just learning.  But the teacher also used the reading together with his more advanced students.
Steps to read together:

a. Introducing the book
      The teacher introduces the book by activating knowledge of children's topic or by presenting new information on topics related to the book, then showing the book cover, book title and author's name. Then the children make predictions about the book.

b. Reading books
  The teacher reads a loud book while the child is following along with an individual copybook, or a great book placed next to the teacher. The teacher gives the model a smooth reading and uses a dramatic style to keep the child's attention.

Teachers encourage children to combine predictable words, phrases, sentences and pay attention to repeated words. Periodically, teachers ask students to stop making predictions about the story or direct their attention to the text.

c. Responding to books
    Children respond to books by drawing and writing in reading lists and sharing responses in discussions. Whenever children read books, enjoyment is the first and foremost goal. They used this book to learn more about written language.

d. Perform recurring readings
    Children and teachers read books together again in a group, and children read books independently or in pairs. Children need to read a book several times in order to become quite familiar with the reading.

e. Investigating books (explore)
 The teacher uses the book as a basic Minilesson to investigate letters, words, and sentences in reading. Minilessons may also focus on tracking, word identification strategies, reading procedures, strategies and skills.

f. Expanding interpretation
    Students expand their interpretation through other reading activities and through projects speaking, drama and writing.

The core of the development of reading and writing on students

The core of the development of reading and writing on students is to make students easy to understand in accordance with the character of each student. As teachers, we must know the character of our own students.

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