Vocabulary Learning For Students

Vocabulary Learning For Students - Some students are interested in learning the word. New research shows that it is best for students to learn words with meanings, activity approaches.

As they write responses in journals, talk about books they have read, and build networks and charts in one cycle of themes, students learn to preserve the meaning of words and how to choose the best words to express ideas. This paper will talk about adding new words to form a vocabulary.

Studying words is a way to choose one of the right words to express the meaning you mean. Vocabulary not only encodes or identifies words but focuses more on their meaning. Choosing the best words to express meaning is important for all language users.

When we listen and read, we must understand the meaning of what other people mean. When we speak and write, we must choose the right words so that people who hear or read understand our message.

Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Concepts
Vocabulary Learning

Words are units of language that contain meaning. The word is the unit of meaning-relationship in language. According to the word KBBI is YG oral or written language elements are manifestations of the unity of feelings and thoughts that can be used in language.

Look at the words carefully

Three-quarters of a million words in English, most people only use around 20,000, and most of the words we use come from the body of about 5,000 to 7,000 words. Our words are very limited. We use overlapping words, but separately listen, speak, read and write vocabulary.

For example, know the word blur when listening or reading, but fewer of us use it to speak or write. For various reasons, our vocabulary in reading and listening is broader than speaking and writing vocabulary.

We might be afraid to miss or misspell a word, or maybe we are afraid of what our friends think if we use the word in a conversation.

The words we use characterize us in several ways: by our choice of words, based on our pronunciation, and by arranging words in a sentence.

The words in our personal vocabulary reflect various levels of word knowledge. Klein (1988) divides our personal vocabulary, which he calls "dictionaries," into three levels:

1. Ownership of the dictionary for words that we already know and have competence;
2. Intermediate level dictionaries, which can be accessed with contextual assistance; And
3. Low-level dictionary, consisting of words that only a little we know and when used can make mistakes.

We have each of the three dictionary levels in our heads, and when we learn a new word, the word enters the low or middle-level dictionary. After you add additional experience or instructions, the word is transferred to the dictionary.

Understanding the History of English and how words enter language have a major contribution to understanding words and their meanings. English is a historical language, and this fact explains the meaning of words and some inconsistent spellings.

English has a variety of words for one concept, and the history of English in general and the etymology of words, in particular, explain clear duplication.

Pay attention to words related to water: water, fire hydrants, aquamarine, waterfalls, hydroelectric, watercress, aquarium, waterproof, hydraulics, aqualung, and hydrogen.

These words have one of three roots, each of which means water: water is English, while Aqua is Latin and Hydro is Greek. The basic word used depends on the person making the word, the purpose of the word, and when it was entered in English.

The development of English is divided into three periods, namely ancient English, Central English, and modern English. The beginning and end of each period are marked by important events, such as invasion or discovery.

1. Old English / Old English (450-1100)
The historical record of England began in 449, when German tribes, including Angles and Saxons, invaded England. English begins with a mixture of dialects used by Angles, Saxons, and other German tribes in England.

Many people assume that English is based on Latin, but it has German roots and was brought to England by these invaders. Although 85% of words from Old English are no longer used, many everyday words are still used (for example children, feet, hands, house, men, mother, old, and the Sun).

Old English has several loan words (words borrowed from other languages ​​and put into English). Through contact with other cultures, foreign words began to be entered into the German word store.

The loan words come from two main sources: Rome and the Vikings. Some words were borrowed from Latin and entered into English. In many ways, ancient English was more like modern German than Modern English.

2. Middle English / Central English (1100-1500)
An event that occurred in 1066 Norman conquest, changing the use of ancient English into central English. The central English period is one of the remarkable changes.

Most Old English vocabulary is gone. 10,000 French words were added to the language, reflecting Norman's impact on British life and society. These include military words (soldier, victory), political words (government, princess), health words (doctor, surgeon), and words related to art (comedy, music, poet).

Learn About Word History

The best source of information about word history is the complete dictionary that provides basic etymological information about words: Borrow words from other languages, form words in that language or representations of words in our alphabet, and original word meanings.

The etymology is enclosed in square brackets and can appear at the beginning or end of a note. They are written in an abbreviated form to save space, and they use abbreviations for language names such as Ar for Arabic and L for Latin languages.

We will look at three etymologies of words that come from very different sources: kings, kimonos, and thermometers. Each etymology originates from the Random English Dictionary (Flexner, 1987). We will translate and explain each etymology using a process we call Extrapolation. For example the word king:

King [bef. 900; ME, OE Cyng] Extrapolation: The word Raja in ancient English was originally spelled Cyng. It was used in English before 900. In the Middle English period, spelling was changed to the current form.

Student vocabulary grows at a rate of around 3,000 words per year (Nagy & Herman, 1985). Through literary units the focus and theme cycle, experimenting with words and concepts, and their knowledge of words and processing meaning.

Children consider that each word has only one meaning, and words that sound the same, like the Son and Sun (the sun), are confusing for them. Through continuous experience with the language, students become smarter at understanding the literal and figurative words and meanings.

As long as students are at SD level, students learn about words and levels of word, words that mean the same and opposite words, words that sound the same, words with multiple meanings, figurative language idioms, and how words are borrowed from the language in All over the world. They also learned about how words were created and enjoyed playing with words (Tompkins, 1994).

Synonyms and antonym

Synonyms are words that have the same meaning or are almost identical to other words. Synonyms are useful because they give options, allowing us to express ourselves more thoroughly. For example, the word flower synonyms are hibiscus, the word thirst synonym is thirst, and the synonym of the word shirt is clothing.

An antonym is words that reveal the opposite meaning. For example, the old word antonym is young, the big word antonym is small, and the word antonym is hot is cold.


Homonym are words that have similarities in voice and spelling. The Homonym is divided into three categories: Homofon, homographs, and Homograph homographs.

Homofon is the same sound words but the writing/spelling is different. Homofon is fully formed from the roots of different words and just happens to have the same sound. E.g:
a. Bank (meaning place to save money) and Bang (nickname for older brother)
b. Mass (community) and time (period)
c. Sangsi (indecisive/hesitant) and sanctions (punishment)

Homographs are words that are of the same text but the sounds are different. Example:
a. He eats apples (fruit) after the apple (ceremony) in the field.
b. The Office of the Patio (the main officer) sits leisurely on the terrace (front floor of the house) while reading news in the newspaper about the farm in the patio area (a slope of flat land in the hills).
c. Police attack (visit to attack) criminals in Serang District (place name).

Homograph Homophon (in Indonesian called Homonym) are words whose writings and sounds are the same, but different meanings. E.g:
a. Book (section) and book (book)
b. Can (CAN) and can (poison snake)
c. Bear (animal) and bear (have Money)
d. Meetings (BERDEMPET-DEMPET) and meetings

Multiple Meaning (Polysemi)

Many words have more than one meaning. According to KBBI Polisemi is a form of language (words, phrases, etc.) that have the meaning of more than one. Example:

a. The word "King"
1) Jones Rhythms of the Dangdut King are conducting a concert in Surabaya.
The word king means senior of all circles of singers
2) The forest King is hunting for Mangonannya in the forest.
The king said the forest ruler
3) The King of Majapahit Kingdom is holding a contest.
The word king means the ruler/leader of the region

b. The word "fruit"
1) apple fruit is by the characteristic of Malang.
Fruit word means fruit
2) Ayana has a fruity heart named Nabila.
Word fruit means the child
3) Nazar brings the hand of Madura city.   
Word Fruit meaningful souvenirs

c. The word "head"
1) The headache of Alya thinks of mathematical tasks.
Word head meaningful limbs
2) My father became a disciplined head of the family.
The word head means Family Leader
3) Head of Bank BCA branch in the Yogyakarta area.
The word head means a branch office or a central