Geographic Research Techniques Regarding Geosphere Phenomena

Geographic Research Techniques - Geographic studies in the geosphere phenomenon include studies of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and Anthroposfer. This chapter will be discussed the steps of geography research on the phenomenon.

Geographic Research Techniques
Geographic Research Techniques

Geography research is essentially an application of scientific methods. In this regard, solving a problem is based on rational and empirical thinking activities, as well as theories that are supported by the facts. Broadly, there are several stages in geography scientific research, as follows:
  1. Formulate a problem: by asking questions that are sourced from the theory or fact of the field.
  2. Reviewing theories or rational thinking to determine a temporary or suspected answer to an emerging problem. The answer is temporarily named hypothesis.
  3. Search for data in the field to prove the temporary answer.
  4. Processing data and testing the truth of temporary answers.
  5. Draw conclusions, that is, determine whether the answer while on the steps received or rejected.

Geographic Research Techniques

In this article, Journal University will discuss geography research, maybe this article can be used as a reference in completing campus or work assignments.

Nature of Geography Studies

1. Population studies
Population studies include geographic study objects. Population studies relate to all aspects related to the prosperity of people, both in a particular region and in the wider sphere. Its scope is not confined to the demographic aspect, but also the psychological and other aspects.

Population problems regarding demographics, mental, tradition. Relationships between individuals, money, prosperity, and so on.

a. Population problems
The problem of population, in general, is a problem that concerns a very low level of people's prosperity. The main cause of the population problem is rapid growth but not balanced with the growth of primary needs material.

b. Application of population studies
The population study framework includes the collection of basic population data, data interpretation, data analysis up to the conclusion of the problem and alternative problem-solving. This aspect of the population concerns abroad component.

Data collection, problem drafting, and problem-solving can not be done only through the field of population studies but must go through a cross-field approach of study or system approach.

2. Environmental studies
Environmental studies involve the symptoms and problems of life in relation to the environment in which life progresses. Environmental studies have established ecological concepts and principles and social sciences. That is why environmental studies can be said to be the application of human ecology.

In human relations with his ward, Patrick Geddes (biologist, sociology, and Geography of Scotland) suggests that the life of the group.

Human in its environment is assisted by three components, namely:
  • Place (physical characteristics of the land)
  • Crowd (a racial state with hereditary characters)
  • Work (How to work, economic activity with supporting collateral)

These three components are known by the name of the Geddes trilogy, which is later expressed as geography, sociology, and economics. According to Geddes, the relationship of three components is a mutualistic interaction in the formation of the patterns of public unrest.

a. Environmental issues
Environmental issues such as erosion, pollution, Kekringan, and flooding include geographical issues. Called a geographical problem because it is a result of the interaction of Antara human factors with natural factors.

So a problem is said to be a geographical problem if associations, interrelated, and interaction of the nature of the environment with unbalanced population circumstances.
b. The application of the study of the straightness to improve the quality of life.

The Earth's front room for a decent life has been very limited. Natural resources are uneven throughout the region. Two things should be observed when planning a mature for the utilization of the use of the Earth all resources it possesses.

With a mature contemplation after careful research, it is expected that quality of life and the quality of the environment can be a balanced level of life can be improved quality, while environmental problems can be avoided.

The procedure of environmental studies aims to find alternative environmental problem solving and living facilities planning. Environmental studies are almost the same as geography studies. The difference lies in terms of emphasis.

Geographic studies emphasize the loss of relationships, while environmental studies are more emphasized on the ability of the environment to accommodate lives in a harmonious and sustainable life.

3. Social Studies
Social studies with interrelated social sciences in studying the symptoms and social problems that occur in the community. Social symptoms are a symptom that occurs in the community caused by the conditions, events, behaviors, and attitudes of ancestors as social beings.

This social symptom is a sign of the disclosure of human life aspects in society. Social symptoms can be observed and studied cause and effect. Keep unemployment, garbage, juvenile delinquency, and traffic jams and then Lintasis an example of social symptoms. If social symptoms have been a severe problem so it is difficult to overcome, then called social problems.

a. Approach to social studies
The approach used in social studies is the Multidesipliner and Interdesipliner approaches. This approach is a hallmark of social studies because of the highly complex studied issues as the interrelated outcomes of different aspects of life.

b. Geography Studies
Through geography studies, it can be examined by social issues based on its spread in space, equality, and differences in social issues, and the uniqueness of social problems in the region concerned. These problems were analyzed by the loss of relationships. The relationship cannot be removed from the social factors of its human age.

4. Study geography in agriculture
Agriculture as a system of spatial is a combination of subsystems physics with human subsystems. PHYSICS subsystem components include climate, hydrography, soil and topography with all its natural processes.

The human subsystem components, meanwhile, include manpower, technology, community traditions, ability, and local political conditions.

Based on the results of associations, relationships and interactions of all such components, both static and dynamic during the period of time and dynamically covering the historical development, can be analyzed aspects of agricultural harmony in the region Certain.

a. Assessment of agricultural area differentiation
The analysis of the agriculture sector can also be done in the agricultural area is quite wide. From the area, we can determine the difference between smaller areas based on the subsystem we highlighted. For example irrigation conditions, soil type, technological capability owned by farmers, and plant type developed.

b. Agricultural support factors
Common subsystems that can support agricultural development, such as soil conditions, hydrography, surface reliefs, climatic conditions, labor, agricultural technology, transformation, marketing, and environmental sustainability efforts.

5. Study of Geography in the industrial field
The industry as a system is a blend of PHYSICS subsystems with human subsystems. The PHYSICS subsystem that supports the growth and development of the industry includes components: materials, raw materials, energy sources, and climate with all its natural processes.

Meanwhile, human subsystems that affect the growth and development of the industry include labor components, technological capabilities, traditions, political situations, government conditions, transformation, consumers and markets.

The combination of these components is what supports the forward or pullback of an industry. The field of geographic assessment covers relationships, associations, and interactions between the components of a space.

a. Geography Highlights
Geographical highlights on the industry aspect lie in the related spatial, component, and space organization in developing the industry. Indonesia which is still in the early stages of industrial development needs to take into account the spatial to prevent social & environmental problems.

b. Proper technology implementation
In geography studies, the financial aspects of industrial development are related to the application of precise technology, location determination and dissemination, and industrial area differentiation. In this connection, the application of adaptive technology in the industrial sector means:
  • Appropriate and compatible with the physical condition of the region of geography developed by the industrial sector. The application of such technologies does not cause erosion, dryness, and pollution.
  • Appropriate and compatible with local economic conditions. Economic concision of Community transitional period Umumny is still agrarian. Therefore, the application of adaptive technology must support and assist the agriculture sector.
  • Appropriate and compatible with local demographic conditions. For Indonesia, today should be applied to labor-intensive technology, especially for the populous region.
  • It can provide a new business field and employment for the local residents, especially for the saturated agriculture sector.

6. Study of Geography in the Field of Transportation and communication
Geographic studies in transportation and communications are a study of more dynamic symptoms and geographical issues than reviewing symptoms in a particular location.

By reviewing transportation and communication, we can reveal the diffusion, the interaction of the harmony, and the progress or the backwardness of an area. Therefore, the development of transportation and communication can be used as infrastructure and to advance remote areas.

a. Technology implementation
Technological advances in transportation and communications have shortened distances on earth. The original remote area could be a major area. High-potential areas can be developed into productive areas.

b. Benefits of technological advances in transportation and communication
Through the advancement of Transportation and communication technology (radio, TV, and telephone) we can.

Beyond the reach of our vision. Now, we can hear events, witness important events, and games by the body that take place abroad.

Communication and transportation technologies are not yet able to reach all corners of the earth. Therefore, the isolated and difficult-to-achieve areas need to be improved in technological developments.

7. Geography Studies in Resource Field
The power of power resources, in addition to being influenced by population growth (consumers), is also influenced by the advancement of science and technology. The quantity of resource utilization is generally positively correlated with population growth.

Meanwhile, the quality and quantity of its explorations are strongly influenced by the advancement and application of technology.

Resources can be renewed when it can turn into an unrenewable resource. Renewable resources can be grouped into vegetable resources (forests, farms, plantations, and other natural vegetation), animal resources (wild animals, farm animals, and fisheries, and abiotic resources that occur due to processes and Strength of natural symptoms.

Resources on the earth are a lot of variety, among others in agriculture, plantation, livestock, and mining. The concept that must be considered in the exploitation of mining goods and the management of resources in agriculture, forestry, livestock, etc., as follows:
a. Profit or loss from exploitation and reserve of mining goods.
b. Support Facilities – technology infrastructure
c. Environmental safety and sustainability factors.

8. Geography studies in residential areas
Settlements are part of the face of the earth inhabited by humans. This includes all the infrastructures and supporting facilities of the life of the people who become one entity with his residence.
The surface of the earth does not increase, even relatively narrower because the number of people is constantly increasing.

At first, man chose a geographical space for the surface of his faith in areas that could meet his life's needs. People choose enough water places, fertile soil provides ease for traffic and transportation, providing easy to find jobs, protected from wild animals, and others.

However, due to rising population growth, poor areas are also a place to live. Unstable land, too sloping, unhealthy areas, or dirty areas are finally occupied by humans. There are two kinds of settlements, as follows:

a. Surface in rural areas
The condition of rural areas still provides ample space to settle. The problem of the surface is not so complex settlements in urban areas.

Rural areas are generally identical to farming areas, and their surface patterns are influenced by the farm in question. The settlements are likely to thrive in a fertile land area.

b. Settlements in urban areas
Settlements in urban areas have more complex problems than in rural areas. The urban population is very diverse, both concerning the type of work, income, education, and other socio-cultural conditions.

The place that is inhabited by urban areas is also very discounts quality. From ordinary buildings and terraced buildings to huts that are not worthy of human occupancy.

Differences in rural and urban settlements are caused by different factors between the two areas. In general, factors that affect the growth and development of settlements, namely physical, social, cultural, economic, political, and so forth. These factors became the cornerstone of the development of the settlement

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