Development of Reading and Writing Stories in Students

Development of Reading and Writing Stories in Students - The concept of the story is knowledge of a story. The child concept tells the story of information about the elements, such as figures, plots, and settings, as well as information about the conventions used by the authors.

Development of Reading and Writing Stories in Students

Reading and Writing Stories

Researchers have documented that the student concept of the story begins in the preschool years, and two-and-a-half years of age have had a basic foundation for the story.

Develop the concept of storytelling in students

The concept of the story is gradually acquired by children through listening to stories read to them, reading their own stories, and telling and writing stories.

Because of this, it is not surprising that older children have a better understanding of the story structure and stories that are read and written to be more complex than younger children.

The student concept of the story plays an important role in interpreting the story they read (the handler & Johnson, 1977; Rumelhart, 1975; Stein & Glenn, 1979), and it is as important as writing (Golden, 1984).

Students continue to cultivate a restriction about the story through reading and writing experiences. When children respond and explore stories they read and write, students learn about the elements of the story and the type or category of the story.

The elements in storytelling

In this chapter, there are five elements of the story: plot, figure, setting, theme, and point of view.

Plot (Groove)
Plots are sequences of events involving figures in conflict situations. The most fundamental aspect of the plot is to divide the main events of the story into three parts i.e. beginning, middle, and end.

Initially, the author introduced the figure, explaining the scene of the story, and presenting problems. Together the three elements form a plot and retain the theme of the entire story.

For example, on the story of Garlic onion, at the beginning of the story of Shallot that has a stepmother; In the middle, garlic's father dies and garlic is often tortured his stepmother; At the end, garlic in the edit of the rich man and forgive his stepmother and shallot.

There is also a conflict in the plot. Conflicts are tensions or conflicts between the characters in the plot, and this is what makes the reader want to continue reading the story. Conflicts occur usually (Lukens, 1991):

a. Between character and nature
This is where bad weather plays an important role, as in the story of Julie of The Wolves (George, 1972) and in the story arranged where the geographical location is isolated, as in the story of Island of The Blue Dolphins (O'dell, 1960).

b. Between figure and society
This occurs when the activities and beliefs of the figure differ from other members of the community and the differences pose a conflict.

c. Interfigures
This is a conflict that is often presented in a story where this happens when a conflict occurs between one person and another in the story.

d. In figures
The conflict was experienced by the character with himself.
The Plot was developed through a conflict introduced at the beginning of the story, expanded in the center, and resolved at the end. Building a plot involves four components:
  • Problems, presented at the beginning of the story
  • Obstacles, presented in the middle of the story
  • Peak conflict, this occurs when the problem will be resolved immediately
  • The solution, this happens at the end of the story where problems are resolved and obstacles are resolved.

To find parts of the conflict in the plot, students can be asked to create a diagram or a story chart.

The character

People are humans or animals personified who are involved in the story. People are important elements of the story because they are centered on a character or group of people. In a story, there is usually one or two or more as the main characters and the other as supporting figures in the story.

Knowing and concluding character traits is an important part of reading. Through character traits, we can get to know the main character is good, and the character appears to be alive. The supporting figure can be a portrait but will be depicted clearly from the main character.

To what extent the supporting figures are developed depending on the author's purpose and story needs.

The figure is depicted in four ways: its appearance, action, dialogue, and monology. The author describes the figure to engage the reader in the story experience, and the reader understands the figure through what the author described.

Setting (background)

The background is all information, hints, references relating to time, space, atmosphere, and the situation of events in the story. Four dimensions in the setting or settings are location, weather, timeframe, and time.

a. Location
This is an important dimension in many stories, this refers to the place where the events are told in a story.

b. Weather
This dimension is also important in some stories, but sometimes the weather isn't described by the author as it won't affect the story.

c. Timeframe
It can be a story that is set in the past or future.

d. Time
Covers time and passage of time. Most stories overlook the time of the day, except for spooky stories usually depicted occurring after dark.

Many also story with short periods of time, less than a day, and sometimes less than an hour. As in Jumanji (Van Allsburg, 1981) Peter and Judy experienced a strange adventure, where their home was ruled by strange woodland creatures, while their parents were attending the opera, this story only lasted a few hours. And in other stories, it takes a long span of time for the main character to grow to completion.

Angle of view

The point of view is the way the author puts himself against the story, from what angle the author looks at his story. The story is written based on a particular point of view and this focus determines the understanding of most readers of the figure and storyline.

There are four points of view in this regard, the person viewpoint, the omniscient viewpoint, the limited omniscient viewpoint, and the objective viewpoint (Lukens, 1991).

a. Person Viewpoint
This point of view is used to tell a story through one character using the pronoun "I".

b. Omniscient Viewpoint
In this point of view writers like God, see and know everything. The author tells the reader how to think about each figure without worrying about how the information is obtained. In this case, the author knows various things about the figures, events, and actions, including the motivation that is behind him. The authors are free to move and tell anything or even hide anything about the characters in the story.

c. Limited Omniscient Viewpoint
This point of view is used so that readers can know the mind of one character. The story is told from a third-person perspective and the author concentrates on the significant thoughts, feelings, and past experiences of the main heroine or other important figures.

In a story may be many figures in it but in this viewpoint, the author does not give an opportunity to the other figures to stand out, but rather the author returns to the main character or just a few.

d. Objective Viewpoint
This viewpoint is limited to eyewitness stories and live scenes. Readers only learn from being seen and heard without knowing what the characters in the story think.

The theme

The theme is the underlying meaning of the story and manifests the general truth about human Nature (Lehr, 1991). Themes can be expressed in two ways that are explicit and implicit. Explicit themes are expressed openly and clearly in the story. While the implicit theme is only implied in the story.

Teaching students about the story

The most important way to improve students ' concepts about the story is to read and write stories, but teachers should help students develop that concept through a minilesson that focuses on certain elements of the story. Minilesson is usually taught at the exploration stage of the reading process after students are given the opportunity to read and respond to stories and discuss them. The steps include:
1. Introducing elements of the story structure
2. Analyzing the story elements
3. Explore stories, activities undertaken include:
  • Retelling a read story
  • Rewriting the Read story
  • dramatizing stories
  • Presenting a puppet show based on the story
  • Draw a chart to display the story elements
  • Create a class storybook, and each student contributes a single page.

4. Study the elements of the story
Students are required to study the elements in the story that have been read using their own words.

There are many ways teachers can use to assess students ' knowledge of the concept of stories, among other things through observing students as they read and respond to stories.

To meet the needs of each student the teacher can do a few things below:

1. Recite the story with a loud
This is done mainly in low class who have not been able to read.

2. Give students the opportunity to choose their own stories that will be read
Schedule a regular reading activity and let students choose the stories they want to read. Libraries should be filled with a wide variety of books, and teachers can give explanations about the story to the students also about the author of his storybook.

3. dramatize the Story
Drama is an effective technique that students can use to understand the stories they read and to inspire stories they will write. In drama, students can role-play to better understand the character and the events of a story.

4. Rewriting the Story
Students can rewrite their favorite stories or retell stories that are read from a figure's perspective.
5. Collaborative discussion in group reading and writing
Students can collaborate in pairs in small groups to read and write stories.

Reading stories

Students use the reading process to read, respond to, explore and broaden their readings.
Aesthetic Reading (Beautiful reading).

According to Louise Rosenblatt (1978), reading is a personal experience as long as the reader connects the story they read to their own lives and their previous experience with literature. The purpose of the beautiful reading is to interpret the readings, the negotiation of meaning between readers and readings (Rosenblatt, 1978, 1985).

Students use strategies to make interpretations, strategies for reading and responding to the story, among others:
a. Imagination
Students are imagining based on stories they read in their minds.
b. Anticipating
Students predict what will happen in the story.
c. Retrospecting
Students rethink what they have read and how they have been affected by the reading of the day.
d. Involve
Students immerse themselves in the story as if they were in and in the story.
e. Empathize
Students respond with their feelings when they read.
f. Identifying
Students make connections between characters and themselves.
g. Outline the
Students make conclusions and add information about what they read.
h. Record opposition
Students record the tension of opponents or opposition in the story.
i. Retelling
Students retell or paraphrased what they had read.
j. Monitoring
Students make sure that what they read makes sense to them.
k. Connect with Life
Students make connections between events, characters, and other elements of the story with their lives.
l. Connecting with other readings
Students make connections between stories they are reading and other stories they have read.
m. Expanding
Students expand their perspectives on what if they wrote the story.
n. Assess and evaluate
Students make judgments about why they like the story or whether the story is worth reading.
o. Analyzing
Students analyze the use of the story elements the author uses.


Intertekstualitas is a student-created interpretation of the books they read before. Students use Intertekstualitas when what they read has similarities to their previous readings. There are five characteristics Intertekstualitas namely (Cairney, 1990, 1992):
1. Single and unique
Previous student reading experiences and relationships they make
2. Depending on previous experience
Intertekstualitas depends on the type of book that students have read, goals and interests read, as well as from the reading community where they come from.
3. Metacognitive Awareness
Most students realize intertextuality and consciously make connections between texts.
4. Connection to the story concept
Students connect stories they read with their knowledge of previous readings.
5. Connection reading and writing
Students make connections between stories they read and the stories they write.
The number of student experiences with previous reads included stories from their parents, books that have been read, or listened to storytelling, through films viewed, the concept of their stories and knowledge of writers and illustrators, as well as the books that students write, is their intertextual basis (Cairney, 1992).

One way teachers encourage students to create intertextual relationships is to group literature by text sets, collecting three or more related books. Text Sets For example:
1. Stories are written by the same author
2. Stories featuring the same characters
3. Stories depicting the same theme
4. Folklore with different versions
5. Stories by genre
6. Other Stories and books
Literary Opposites
Sometimes in a story that happens to be contrasting or contradictory, it can be between its settings, the character, or the events in the story.

Adapt reading and writing stories

To meet each student's needs
1. Reading aloud for students
Teachers can create stories that students cannot read independently to be accessed by reading aloud to students. When students listen to stories together in small groups or as a class, they become an interpretive community, and the experience with stories develops a strong bond between students. Students can also listen to stories in a listening center.

2. Encourage students to select a reading story
Teachers should schedule regular reading workshops so that students can read stories so they are interested in reading or reread their favorite stories. Library classes should be filled with a wide variety of books, and teachers can give a book talk to introduce students to stories and writers from which they might choose.

3. dramatize the Story
Drama is an effective technique that students can use to understand the stories they read and to make their stories will write. When students read a complex story, they could play the role of an important scene in order to better understand the characters and events.

4. Rewriting the Story
Students can rewrite a favorite story or retell a story from a student standpoint. Many students are more successful in rewriting stories rather than writing original stories because they are better able to control the storyline.

5. Collaborate on reading and writing in groups
Students can work together in pairs or in small groups to read and write stories. In this way, students support each other because they read and write.

Another way that students demonstrate their understanding of the story section is to create groups, graphs, and diagrams.

This activity is the natural result of the student's response to the story, not the reason why students read the story (Urzua, 1992).

Teachers also documented students ' understanding of the elements of the story by examining the stories they wrote to see how they had applied their knowledge of the story.

As classes during the focus unit literature, they read the stories they chose themselves in the reading class, and they read other stories as part of the theme cycle. Students use the process of reading, responding, exploring, and expanding their reading.

Reading a student's story is more than just a fun way to spend an hour; That is how the Community class was created (Cairney, 1992). Read, write, and talk about natural extension stories from the relationship that students have built together.

Students share stories they read with classmates, and they work together on projects to broaden their interpretation.

Aesthetic Reading

According to Louise Rosenblatt (1978), reading is a personal experience as long as the reader connects the stories they read to their own lives and previous experiences with literature. The purpose of the aesthetic reading is interpretation, the negotiation of meaning between the reader and the text (Rosenblatt, 1978, 1985).

Readers are not looking for writers  "true " which means; Instead, they create personal meaning for themselves. The story evokes meaning differently from different readers or even from the same reader at different times of his life.

Students use their strategy to make interpretations. This strategy to read and respond to stories includes the following:
1. Imaging. Students make pictures or drawings of stories in their minds.
2. Anticipate. Students anticipate or make predictions about what will happen in the story.
3. retrospecting. Students rethink what they have read and how the results of what they are now reading.
4. Involving. Students engage in stories, so much so they feel as though they are transported through space and time into the story.
5. Empathize. Students respond with their feelings when they read.
6. Identify. Students make connections between characters and themselves.
7. Elaborating. Students make conclusions and add what information they read.
8. See the opposite. Students record the tension of opponents or contrasts in stories.
9. Retelling. Students retell or paraphrase what they have read.
10. Monitoring. Students make sure that what they read makes sense for them.

This is the method of developing Reading and Writing Stories for Students, journaluniversity.com will explain in more detail on the next page. If there are criticisms and suggestions, please fill in your journal contact or comment. (Foto: Pixabay)