Qualitative Research Methods and Definition (With Example)

Qualitative research has a number of traits that distinguish them from other types of research. From the results of the literature study, it was found that Bogan and Biklen (1982-27-30) proposed five traits, being Licholn and Guba (1983) Reviewing ten qualitative research traits.

Qualitative Research Methods and Definition
Qualitative research equipment

According to Journal University, the results of qualitative methods are more descriptive and conclusions can be easily drawn from data obtained compared to other types of research.

Qualitative Research

What qualitative research methods The research method illustrates research plans that include procedures or steps to take, research time, data source, and in what way the data is obtained and processed/analyzed. In practice, there are a number of commonly used methods for research purposes.

The research methods are closely related to the procedures, techniques, tools, and design of the research used. The research design should match the research approach chosen.

The procedures, techniques, and tools used in the research should be suitable also with the prescribed research method. Before the research was conducted, researchers needed to answer at least three basic questions (Nazir, 1985):
  • What work order or procedure should I do in implementing a study?
  • What tools (instruments) to use in measuring or in collecting data and what techniques will be used in analyzing data?
  • How to implement the research?

The answers to these three questions give researchers the order of work that continues to be done in a study. This helps researchers to control activities or stages of the activity and make it easier to know the progress of the research.

The descriptions below are the results of the assessment and synthesis of both versions:

Natural background

Qualitative research conducts research on the natural setting or on the context of integrity (entity). This is done, according to Lincoln and Guba (1985:39), because the natural ontology requires reality as completeness that can not be understood if separated from the context. They think it is based on some assumptions:

The observation action affects what is seen, therefore the research relationship should take place on the integrity-in context for the purposes of observation.

Context is very significant in establishing whether an invention has meaning for other contexts, meaning that a phenomenon should be examined in the overall field of influence; Dan
Some structures of the contextual value are determinative of what will be sought.

Man as an instrument

In qualitative research, researchers alone or with the help of others are the primary Data collector tools. This is because, if utilizing a non-human tool and preparing it first, as usual, is used in classical research, it is very unlikely to hold dissemination of the reality in the field.

Only humans as the instrument can assess whether the presence becomes a factor of destruction so that if there is such thing he can certainly realize it and can overcome it.

Qualitative method

Qualitative research using qualitative methods. This qualitative method is used due to several considerations, namely:
  • Firstly, adjusting the qualitative method is easier when dealing with double-reality;
  • Secondly, this method presents directly the nature of the relationship between researchers and respondents;
  • Thirdly, this method is more sensitive and adapts to many of the mutual and shared influences and to the patterns of value encountered.

Inductive Data Analysis

By using the analysis inductive, it means that data retrieval is not meant to prove the hypothesis that has been formulated before the research is held. This analysis is more of an abstraction formation based on the parts that have been collected. So the formulation of the theory here comes from the bottom up, which is from a number of parts that are a lot of data that is dukdull and interconnected.

If the researcher plans to compose the theory, the direction of the theoretical drafting will become apparent after the data is collected.

So researchers, in this case, compose or make an increasingly clear picture while data is collected and parts are tested. In this case, researchers do not assume that it is enough that it is known to understand important parts before conducting research.


The Data collected are words, images, and not numbers. This is due to the application of qualitative methods. In addition, all those gathered are likely to be key to what has been researched.

At the report writing, researchers analyzed the very rich data and as far as possible in its original form. It should be done like a knitting person so that the part of the study one by one. Questions in other words "why", "what reasons" and "how it happened" will always be utilized by researchers.

Better importance of process than results

Qualitative research is more concerned with "process" than "results". This is due to the relationship of the parts being researched will be much clearer when observed in the process. Bogdan and Biklen (1982:29) Give an example of a researcher observing it in a daily relationship, then explaining the attitude studied. In other words, the role of the process in qualitative research is enormous.

The "Limits" defined by "focus"

Qualitative research requires the establishment of a boundary in its research on the basis of focus (identification of problems) arising as a matter of study. This is due to the following:

First, limit determines the double reality that then sharpens focus
Secondly, the determination of focus can be closer connected by the interaction between researchers and focus.

It can be closer connected by the interaction between researchers and focus. In other words, however, establishing a focus as a matter of research means finding the boundaries of research. It can be found that researchers find the research location.

Existence of special criteria for Data validity

The quality research has been finalized the validity, reliability, and objectivity in other versions than is commonly used in classical research. According to Lincoln and Guba (198 ~: 43) It was due to the following things:
  • First by the internal validity of the old way has failed because it uses isomorphism between the results of research and the singular fact whereby research can be converged.
  • Secondly, external validity fails due to being disobedient to the axiom (a device of belief based on certain assumptions already formed within the researchers) the basis of its generalization;
  • Thirdly, the criteria for reusability of the sentiments due to its absolute requirements for stability and alignment are not used in a paradigm based on changeable design.
  • Fourth, the criteria of objectivity failed because quantitative research gave a chance of interaction between the respondents and the role of value.

Temporary/Temporal design

Qualitative research design that is continuously adjusted to the reality of the field. So, do not use a design that has been tightly arranged and rigid is irreversible. This is due to the following:
  • First, it cannot be imagined before about the double reality in the field;
  • Secondly, it can not be for predicting what will change because it will happen in the interaction between researchers with reality;
  • Thirdly, various system-related values relate in ways that cannot be foreseen.

Research results are negotiated and agreed with together

Qualitative research would prefer to have research in order to understand the results of the inner achievements that have been negotiated data negotiated and agreed upon by the human being as the source of data. This is due to several things, as follows:
  • First, the order of reality is that it will be adopted by researchers
  • Secondly, the research results depend on the nature and quality of the relationship between searchers and sought
  • Thirdly, the hypothesis confirmation, the work will be better verifies when it is known and confirmed by people who have a relation to the researched.

For the difference between qualitative and quantitative research, we will explain on the next page as well as research examples. (Photo: Pixabay)

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