Research Report: Definition, Differences, Object, and Types

Research Report: Definition, Differences, Object, and Types - The last stage which is the most important stage in the process of conducting research is the stage of writing the research report. However important the theories and hypotheses of research are, or how careful and thorough the design and implementation of the research are, or how great the research findings are if not reported in writing.

Research Report: Definition, Differences, Object, and Types
Note blank

Researchers need communication with other parties so that their research experience can add to the treasury for the benefit of scientific development (Margono, 2009: 234).

Research Report

According to Ary (2010: 575), a research proposal is a written plan for a project/research that will be submitted to others for evaluation.

Understanding Research Report

According to Cresswell (2012: 266), a research report is the completion of a study that reports an investigation or exploration of a problem, identifies the questions to be resolved, and analyzed,  interpreted by the researcher and includes data collected.

Proposal Differences and Research Reports

Research proposals and research reports are almost the same in many ways, the main difference being that research proposals are produced before the research begins, while the research report is prepared after the research is completed (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009: 617).

Besides this there are several important points that must be considered about research proposals and research reports (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009: 640) :

1. Research Proposal Versus Research Report
  • A research proposal communicates the researcher's plan for the study.
  • A research report communicates what was actually done in the study and what was produced.

2. The Main Part of the Research Proposal or Report
  • The main part is the largest part of the proposal or report and generally covers the problem to be examined (including statements of problems or questions, research hypotheses and variables, and some definitions); a review of literature; procedures (including sample descriptions, instruments to use, research designs, and procedures to be followed; identification of threats to internal validity; description and justification of statistical procedures used); and (in the proposal) expected budget.
  • All parts of the research proposal or research report must be consistent with one another.

3. Unique Section for Research Reports
  • An important difference between a research proposal and a research report is that the research report states what is done not what will be done and includes the actual results of the study. Thus, in a report, descriptions of related findings for each research hypothesis or question are presented, together with discussions, research findings, implying overall knowledge and practice.
  • Usually, the final part of this report is to offer some suggestions for further research.

Objective For Proposal Research

The purpose of the proposal is to help a researcher think of all aspects of research and anticipate the impact of research problems (Cresswel, 2012: 268). A good proposal defines:
  1. Facilitating the process of obtaining permission to study the research object.
  2. Provide information to the authorities so that they can determine the possible impact of research in the area/place of research.
  3. Provides criteria for assessing project quality. They evaluate and review. The research uses these criteria. Know the right elements in a good proposal and accuracy in implementation.

Types of Research Report Types

According to Cresswell (2012: 268), research reports can be presented in the form of (1) Thesis or Dissertation, (2) Journal articles, (3) Conference Papers and Proposals.

Meanwhile, according to Ary (2010: 605), a research report might be presented as (1) Thesis or dissertation, (2) journal articles, (3) conference papers. A different approach to reporting is used for each of these problems.

1. Thesis and Dissertation
The thesis and dissertation are research reports for readiness as masters and doctorates. The length of the thesis or dissertation can vary depending on the tradition at each university.

To develop a dissertation or thesis, the researcher first makes a proposal, which is a formal description of the plan to investigate the research problem.

This process begins by considering what is the topic in the plan so the reader can understand the project.

The next step is to arrange the type of research to be developed, quantitative or qualitative research. The initial planning process ended with the presentation of the proposal to the committee.

2. Journal Articles
The researcher prepares a journal article for readers of scientific publications as well as for editors and individuals who review the research. A journal article will be polished, the research report sent to the journal editor is shorter.

The editor arranges for two to three reviewers to provide comments about the study. The editor then makes decisions based on reviewers' comments, which usually fall into one of the three categories of decisions: accept, revise and resubmit, or reject. If the article is accepted, the editor publishes it in a journal.

A journal article is much shorter than a thesis or dissertation because of the limited pages imposed by journal publishers and editors.

However, qualitative journal articles are longer than quantitative journal articles because of extensive quotations and lengthy discussion of descriptions and themes. The format of qualitative and quantitative journal articles varies with each journal.

3. Conference Papers
The research norm is research in which the research report can be known by the public. One way to do this is to present a paper at a professional association conference.

Developing and presenting conference papers from research studies helps to publicize research, provides research input for resumes, helps to advance the work of writers in the research education community, and builds knowledge among researchers exploring topics/themes. The audience for the conference may be researchers, practitioners, or policymakers.

Researchers must prepare papers for participants attending the conference. Usually, the length of a conference paper is almost the same as a journal article, about 25 pages plus tables, figures, and attachments.

A brief conference proposal to explain the study/research at a conference. Typically, these proposals number around three pages and reviewers use them to determine whether they will accept the author's research for presentations at the conference.