Educational Research Methods (Descriptive, Case Study, Surveys, Correlational, Experimental, Actions, R&D)

Educational Research Methods - The research methods are closely related to the procedures, techniques, tools, and design of the research used. The research design should match the research approach chosen. The procedures, techniques, and tools used in the research should be suitable also with the prescribed research method Descriptive, Case Study, Surveys, Correlational, Experimental, Actions, R&D.

Educational Research Methods Book
Educational Research Methods Book

Journal University will provide a review related to research methods for education so that students and teachers teach easily conduct research in the world of education. This article will explain the understanding of educational methods and examples. We will provide PDF articles and books to complete lecture assignments such as papers, theses, theses, dissertations, and journals.

Before the research was conducted, researchers needed to answer at least three basic questions (Nazir, 1985) :
  1. What work order or procedure should I do in implementing a study?
  2. What tools (instruments) to use in measuring or in collecting data and what techniques will be used in analyzing data?
  3. How to implement the research?

The answers to these three questions give researchers the order of work that continues to be done in a study. This helps researchers to control activities or stages of the activity and make it easier to know the progress of the research.

Research Methods for Education

The research method illustrates research plans that include procedures or steps to take, research time, data source, and in what way the data is obtained and processed/analyzed. In practice, there are a number of commonly used methods for research purposes.

The following will briefly put forward some simple research methods often used in educational research.

1. Descriptive research

Descriptive research is a study that seeks to describe the symptoms, events, events that occurred today. Descriptive research focuses on actual problems as they are at the time of research.

Through descriptive research, researchers are trying to describe the events and incidents that become the center of attention without giving special treatment to the event. The researched variables can be single (one variable) can be also more and one variable.

Descriptive research according to its characteristics has certain steps in its implementation. The steps are as follows:
  • Formulation of problems. Any research method must begin with a problem, namely the application of the research questions that the answer should be sought using data from the field. Question problems contain variables that are a study in this study. In descriptive research, researchers can determine the status of variables or learn the relationship between variables.
  • Specifies the type of information required. In this case, researchers need to specify what information is required to answer questions or problems that have been formulated. Whether quantitative or qualitative information. Quantitative information with respect to data or information in the form of such numbers/numbers.
  • Define data collection procedures. There are two necessary research elements, i.e. instruments or data collector tools and data sources or samples from which information should be obtained. In research, there are a number of data collection tools such as tests, interviews, observations, questionnaires, sociometry. These tools are commonly used in descriptive research. For example, to obtain information on teaching teacher steps, the right tool or instrument is used for observation or observation. Another possible way to use is the interview with the teacher about the teaching steps. In order to obtain clear samples, the research problem should be formulated as specific as possible, giving a definite direction to the instrument and data source.
  • Determine the procedure for information or data processing. Data and information that has been obtained with selected instruments and certain data sources or samples are still information or abusive data. Such information and data need to be processed in order to be used as material to answer research questions.
  • Draws research conclusions. Based on the results of the above data processing, researchers concluded the results of descriptive research by answering the research questions and synthesizing all these answers in a conclusion that summarizes the overall research problem.

2. Case study

Case studies are essentially studying intensively an individual or group that is viewed as experiencing a specific case. For example, learning specifically that school principal is not disciplined in work. To the case, researchers study it deeply and within a long time.

In-depth, it means exposing all the variables that can cause the case from various aspects. The main pressure in a case study is why individuals do what he or she does and how they behave in their condition and influence on the environment.

To uncover the problems of the undisciplined principal the researcher needs to find data regarding his experience in the past, present, the environment that formed it, and the links of the variables pertaining to the case.

Data is obtained from various sources such as its co-workers, teachers, and even from him. The technique of obtaining data is very comprehensive such as the observation of its behavior, interviews, documentary analysis, tests, etc.

Depending on the case studied. Each data is recorded carefully, then examined, linked to one another, if needed to be discussed with other researchers before drawing conclusions-the conclusion of the cause of the case or the problem indicated by the individual. Case studies are signaled to qualitative research.

The advantage of case studies from other studies is that researchers can study the subject deeply and thoroughly. But its weakness corresponds to the nature of the case study that the information obtained is subjective, meaning only for the individual concerned and not necessarily usable for the same case in the other individual.

In other words, generalization of information is very limited in use. Case studies are not to test hypotheses, but the results of case studies may result in a hypothesis that can be tested through further research. Many theories, concepts, and principles can be generated and the findings of case studies.

3. Research surveys

Research surveys are quite widely used for solving educational problems including the importance of formulating educational wisdom. The primary purpose is to collect information about variables from a column of objects (population).

A survey with coverage of all populations (objects) is called a census. Surveys that study a portion of the population are called survey samples. For educational purposes, the survey usually reveals the problem with regards to how many students have enrolled and received in a school? What is the average number of students in a class?

How many teachers have qualified qualifications? Such quantitative questions are needed as a basis for planning and solving educational problems in schools. The next stage can also be performed by the corporation or analysis of the relationship between variables.

Surveys can also be done to identify variables such as opinions, perceptions, attitudes, achievements, motivation, etc. For example the principal's perception of educational autonomy, the teacher's perception of KTSP, students ' opinions on SBM, and others.

Researchers can measure those variables clearly and definitively. The information obtained may be of paramount importance to certain groups, although it is less beneficial for science.

Surveys in education are many benefits both for solving practical problems as well as for materials in formulating education wisdom even for educational studies in conjunction with development.

Through this method can be expressed the actual problems and describe it, learn the relationships of two or more variables, compare the conditions with which the criteria have been determined, or assess the effectiveness of a program.

4. Correlational Studies

As with any survey, another descriptive method that is often used in education is the study of correlation. This study learns the relationship of two or more variables, i.e. the extent to which variations in one variable relate to variation in another variable.

The degree of variable-variable relationships is expressed in one index called the correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient can be used to test hypotheses about relationships between variables or to declare relationships between the two variables.

A correlation study aimed at testing the hypothesis was performed by measuring a number of variables and calculating the correlation coefficient between those variables, in order to determine which variables are correlated.

For example, researchers want to know which variables should be related to the professional competence of the principal. All of the variables associated (e.g. educational background, academic supervision, etc.) were measured, and then counted the coefficient of correlates to determine which variables are most powerful with the principal's managerial capabilities.

The strength of the relationship between the research variables is indicated by the correlation coefficient that the number varies between-1 to + 1. The correlation coefficient is the magnitude obtained through statistical calculations based on the data set of the measurement results of each variable.

A positive correlation coefficient indicates a relationship that is directly proportional to alignment, a negative correlation coefficient indicates an inverse relationship or inalignment. The number 0 for the correlation coefficient indicates no relationship between variables.

The larger the correlation coefficient is either in the positive or negative direction, the greater the strength of the relationship between variables.

For example, there is a positive correlation between IQ variables and learning achievements; Containing high IQ meaning will be followed by high learning achievement; In other words, there is a parallel between IQ and learning achievement.

Conversely, a negative correlation indicates that high values on one variable will be followed by a low value on other variables. For example, there is a negative correlation between absenteeation and learning achievement; Contains the meaning that high attendance will be followed by low learning achievement; In other words, there is a misalignment between attendance and learning achievement.

In a correlational study, there are at least two variables to be measured so that it can be known to do. In addition, it can also be analyzed the relationship between three or more variables.

The meaning of a correlation that is narrated in the letter R (small) can contain three things. Firstly, the strength of the relationship between variables, second, the statistical significance of the relationship between the two variables, and the three directions of correlation.

The strength of the relationship can be seen and the large-small correlation index. A value close to zero means weak relationships and the opposite value approaching the number one indicates a strong relationship.

A considerable factor that affects the large-small correlation coefficient is the reliability of the instruments used in measurements. The test of learning results that is too easy for a child to be clever and too difficult for a stupid child will produce a small correlation coefficient. Therefore, instruments that do not have high reliability will not be able to reveal a meaningful or significant degree of relationship.

5. Experimental Research

Experimental research can be defined as a systematic method to build relationships that contain causal phenomena. Experimental research is the core method of a research model that uses a quantitative approach. In the experimental method, researchers must undertake three requirements i.e. controlling activities, manipulating activities, and observation.

In experimental studies, researchers divided objects or subjects that were investigated into two groups, namely treatment groups that received treatment and control groups that did not get treatment. Experimental research characteristics include:
  • Manipulating/systematically modifying certain circumstances.
  • Controlling the variables in controlling the research conditions during the manipulation
  • Observe the measuring and observing of the manipulation results.

The process of experimental research in the Prithe same is the same as other types of research. It can explicitly be seen as follows:
  • Conduct an inductive review relating to the problem that is to be solved
  • Identifying problems
  • Conducting relevant literature studies, pioneering research hypotheses, determining operational and variable definitions.
  • Creating research plans includes: identifying unnecessary variables, determining how to control variables, choosing the right experimental design, determining the population and selecting research samples, dividing the subject into control groups and experimental groups, creating appropriate instruments, identifying data collection procedures and defining hypotheses.
  • Conducting experimental activities (giving treatment to experimental groups)
  • Collecting experimental Results data
  • Classify and describe the data of each variable
  • Conducting data analysis with appropriate statistical techniques
  • Create an experimental research report.

In experimental research, researchers had to compile the minimum variables of one hypothesis stating the causal relationship between the variables occurring. The variables that are researched include free variables and bound variables have been determined firmly by researchers since the beginning of the study.

In the field of learning such as those identified as free variables, among others: teaching methods, various reinforcement, frequency of reinforcement, education means, learning environment, learning materials, the number of groups of studies. While the variables are identified, among others: Student learning outcomes, student learning readiness, student independence.

6. Research actions

Research action is a form of self-reflection research conducted by participants in social situations (including education) to improve self-practices. Thus, there will be an understanding of the practice and the situation in which the practice is implemented. There are two essences of research action i.e. improvement and involvement.

This directs the aim of the research action into three areas namely:
(1) to improve the practice;
(2) For professional development in the sense of improving the understanding/ability of practitioners to the practice that they perform;
(3) To correct circumstances or situations in which the practice is exercised.

Research actions aim to uncover the cause of the problem and simultaneously give steps to solving problems. The basic steps taken will form a cycle until there is a rendering. The first cycle and subsequent cycles are:
  • The establishment of focus research issues,
  • Remedial action planning,
  • Implementation of corrective action, observation, and Interpretation,
  • Analysis and reflection, and
  • Follow-up planning. Given the large benefits of research activities in the field of education, specific descriptions will be explained in the material itself.

7. Research and Development (R&D) methods

Research and development or research and Development (R&D) is a strategy or research method that is quite potent to improve the practice. Research and development or Research and Development (R&D) is a series of processes or steps in order to develop a new product or improve existing products to be accountable.

Such products are not necessarily in the form of objects or hardware, such as books, modules, learning aids in the classroom or in laboratories, but also software, such as computer programs for data processing, Study in classrooms, libraries or laboratories, or models of education, learning, training, guidance, evaluation, management systems, etc.

Research in the field of education is generally rarely directed at the development of a product but is aimed at discovering new knowledge with regard to fundamental phenomena, as well as educational practices.

Research and development is a liaison method or breaker gap between basic research and applied research. Often faced with the gap between basic research results are theoretical with practical research applied.

This gap can be eliminated or connected with research and development. In the implementation of research and development, there are several methods used, namely methods: Descriptive, evaluative, and experimental.

Descriptive research is used in preliminary research to compile data on existing conditions. Conditions include:
  • Condition of existing products as a comparison material or the base material (embryo) of the product to be developed,
  • The condition of the user (in the field of education such as schools, teachers, principals, students, and other users);
  • Condition of supporting factors and inhibitory development and use of the product to be produced, including elements of educators and education personnel, means, cost, management, and educational environment where the product will be applied.

Evaluative methods used to evaluate products in the process of developing a product. The research product was developed through a series of trials and on each trial activity was conducted evaluation, both the evaluation of results and process evaluation. Based on the findings on the test results there was a refinement (model revision).

The experimental method is used to test the efficacy of the resulting product. Although in the trial phase there has been evaluation (measurement), the measurements are still in the framework of product development, there is no comparison group.

In experiments, there have been measurements other than in the experiment group as well as in comparison groups or control groups.

The selection of experimental groups and control groups is done randomly or randomly. Benchmarking results in both groups can indicate the level of efficacy and products produced. (Photo: Pixabay)

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